Urinary stones


Location: Renal, ureteral, vescical and urethral.

Composition: They can contain calcium and, thus, be radiopaque; they can contain uric acid and be radiotransparent.

Therapy:
1 Sodiumbicarbonate or the likes (radiotransparent stones)
2 Lithotripsy (radiopaque stones): it implies the breaking of the stone which was not spontaneously eliminated and it is carried out by Holmium laser or Thulium laser. The use of the laser allows a more targeted action, so that the surrounding frames are not damaged. The use of laser in the endoscopic treatment of urinary stones stands out for a choice treatment.


Abstract:
Treatment of ureteric lithiasis with retrograde ureteroscopy and holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy vs extracorporeal lithotripsy. 
Optimal power settings for Holmium:YAG lithotripsy. 
Enhanced thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using micro-pulse train modulation. 
Ureteroscopic lithotripsy using holmium laser for 187 patients with proximal ureteral stones. 
Flexible ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy for stone disease in patients with bleeding diathesis: a systematic review of the literature. 
Efficacy and safety of endoscopic laser lithotripsy for urinary stone treatment in children. 
A comparison of holmium:YAG laser with Lithoclast lithotripsy in ureteral calculi fragmentation. 
Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy: an in vitro analysis of stone fragmentation using a modulated 110-watt Thulium fiber laser at 1.94 microm. 
In-situ holmium laser lithotripsy for impacted urethral calculi. 
Flexible ureteroscopy and holmium-Yag laser: material and technique. 
Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy for upper urinary tract calculi with active fragment extraction and computerized tomography followup. 
Holmium:YAG laser treatment of ureteral calculi: A 5-year experience. 
High-power holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser for percutaneous treatment of large renal stones. 
Lasers in clinical urology: state of the art and new horizons. 


Conferences:
Congresso A.UR.O. 12-14 Ottobre 2000, Milano (IT)
LASER AD OLMIO IN UROLOGIA
DAY SURGERY AND ONE DAY SURGERY
S. Mattioli, L. Caperna, M. Cremona
U.O. Urologia - Istituto Clinico S. Ambrogio - Milano (IT)
Congresso SUNI 16-18 Settembre 1999, Alessandria (IT)
L'USO DEL LASER AD OLMIO NEL TRATTAMENTO DELLA CACOLOSI URETERALE
L. Caperna, S. Mattioli, M. Cremona
U.O. Urologia - Istituto Clinico S. Ambrogio - Milano (IT)
 

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